Higher Education and Development. (ENGLISH)

June 15, 2018

Ehasan Masood is a science writer, journalist and broadcaster. He has been the editor of Research Professional News (including Research Fortnight) and has been teaching international science policy at Imperial College London.

He is the author of many books https://www.amazon.com/Ehsan-Masood/e/B0034NTAGU/ref=sr_ntt_srch_lnk_1?qid=1528550817&sr=8-1

In this episode, we discuss the issue of higher education and development. In the modern world where technology is evolving and changing, how should we think of higher education and its role in development policy. 

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Water (ENGLISH)

June 11, 2018

Water is in the news. Suddenly Pakistan has started taking water seriously. Perhaps the CJP triggered it.

It is great that we are taking the issue seriously. Water is indeed a lifeline issue and should be taken seriously. All experts have been agreed for a while that we are headed towards a water crisis. Yet the government and civil society has mostly been in oblivion till the CJP spoke. 

Here we speak to Rafay Alam, an environmental lawyer who has been researching water for the last few years. He has talked to us on urban issues before. 

This episode offers a wealth of information on water.  If you really want a quick update and deep education on water issues in Pakistan, listen to this. 

Rafay also gives us a reading list on the subject.

Listen to this and let us reinvigorate research and debate into change. 

Listen to this fascinating discussion. There is much to learn and research here. 

You can also look at my book “Looking Back: How Pakistan Became an Asian Tiger in 2050” now available in hard copy in Pakistan here http://www.libertybooks.com/index.php?route=product/search&search=Nadeem%20ul%20haque&category_id=0Soft copy here. https://www.amazon.com/Looking-Back-Pakistan-Became-Asian-ebook/dp/B06X94135J/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1488133596&sr=1-1&keywords=nadeem+haque

Listen and learn and write some papers on this subject.  Don’t forget to cite Soch Bichar

Please subscribe to Soch Bichar if you like it. Tell you friends about it. That is the only way to grow a public discussion. And we need a wider conversation on these important subjects.

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Research and Eduction Entreprenuership (URDU)

June 6, 2018

Waqar Mahmood is an educational/research entrepreneur. “He has successfully started a Al-Khwarizmi Institute of Computer Science (KICS)” 

Their website says “It was envisioned as an institute for advanced and high quality applied research working in collaboration with industries and other academic institutions on national and international levels to bring about the IT revolution in Pakistan and help build a knowledge driven economy. We strive to gather capable and competent researchers at one platform and provide them with favorable and motivational environment for creating innovative technologies and products.”

It is very successful in every way because

  • It has visionary leadership
  • It is autonomous
  • It has modern HR and management

You must listen to this visionary leader about what he has achieved and about what he says should be done to achieve the potential of universities.  

Hope HEC listens.

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Urban Planning from a Planner’s Viewpoint (URDU)

May 28, 2018

Nadeem Khurshid and Mohamed Shoaib are 2 town planners actively involved in town planning. Their perspective is very important to get.

The community of town planners is totally excluded from city management and has no career in our cities.  Is that good or bad.  Learn more by listening to this episode.  

Listen to this and let us reinvigorate research and debate into change. 

Listen to this fascinating discussion. There is much to learn and research here. 

You can also look at my book “Looking Back: How Pakistan Became an Asian Tiger in 2050” now available in hard copy in Pakistan here http://www.libertybooks.com/index.php?route=product/search&search=Nadeem%20ul%20haque&category_id=0Soft copy here. https://www.amazon.com/Looking-Back-Pakistan-Became-Asian-ebook/dp/B06X94135J/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1488133596&sr=1-1&keywords=nadeem+haque

Listen and learn and write some papers on this subject.  Don’t forget to cite Soch Bichar

Please subscribe to Soch Bichar if you like it. Tell you friends about it. That is the only way to grow a public discussion. And we need a wider conversation on these important subjects.

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law and Justice Reform Again (ENGLISH)

May 26, 2018

Today my guest is Irfan Qadir, who was the Attorney General of Pakistan till 2013. An accomplished and well-known lawyer, who has been a leading proponent of judicial restraint and reform. 

We have been running with the colonial system for 70 years and it is overstretched and at the limits of its capacity. Irfan tells us of the many inconsistencies in our judiciary that seems to be concerned more with its own pomp and glory and less with justice and learning. 

The outmoded legal and judicial system may be one of the most important reasons why we are low on the Ease of Doing Business and Competitiveness Indices. We must debate and discuss this issue far more than we do.

If any of you have thoughts on legal and judicial reform please come to Soch Bichar where all thinking people meet. 

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Configuring the Energy system (ENGLISH)

May 21, 2018

Energy system is plagued with leakages while the government continues to build more and bigger power plants. Even though the price of oil has gone down by about $100 from its peak in 2007-8, the circular debt continues to plague us while load-shedding remains intact.

Last episode I talked about how the power system needs to be reconfigured. 

Here I go into detail because I thought some things need explaining.

We have a haemorrhaging patient and we are relying on more and more blood transfusions and not fixing the haemorrhage.

My contention here is we need to operate on the system and fix.

Listen to it and see if you agree. And remember without discussion ideas die.

REMEMBER TO SUBSCRIBE TO SOCH BICHAR.

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Youth in focus: The new UNDP HDR. (URDU)

May 18, 2018

The much-awaited UNDP Human Development Report focused on youth has been successfully launched and welcomed in Pakistan.  Led by Adil Najam and Faisal Bari, it is probably one of the largest research projects in Pakistan’s history. A large team (40 members) worked on it for 4 years to produce a detailed report listening to the youth on Pakistan. 

 

Those of you who have followed this podcast will have heard of the youth bulge and its impact on many factors in the economy. Here listen to Adil’s report on the Youth bulge in Pakistan. Adil Najam (who appears for the third time on Soch Bichar) very eloquently gives you the gist of this very important work. 

Listen to it and develop further research on this important area 

 

Related material if interested is

http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/Working%20Paper/WorkingPaper-68.pdf

Listen to this and let us reinvigorate research and debate into change. 

Listen to this fascinating discussion. There is much to learn and research here. 

You can also look at my book “Looking Back: How Pakistan Became an Asian Tiger in 2050” now available in hard copy in Pakistan here http://www.libertybooks.com/index.php?route=product/search&search=Nadeem%20ul%20haque&category_id=0Soft copy here. https://www.amazon.com/Looking-Back-Pakistan-Became-Asian-ebook/dp/B06X94135J/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1488133596&sr=1-1&keywords=nadeem+haque

Listen and learn and write some papers on this subject.  Don’t forget to cite Soch Bichar

Please subscribe to Soch Bichar if you like it. Tell you friends about it. That is the only way to grow a public discussion. And we need a wider conversation on these important subjects.

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How the Raj Matters? (english)

May 14, 2018

lhan Niaz a young historian (Associate Professor at QAU and Author of 4 books) has just completed a well-researched manuscript on the state in the days of the Raj.  He asks several pertinent questions.

  • Was the Raj only an extension of the British government?
  • Did it adapt to local history and conditions?
  • How did it influence subsequent history?

I found this to be fascinating conversation.

Listen to this and let us reinvigorate research and debate into change. 

Listen to this fascinating discussion. There is much to learn and research here. 

You can also look at my book “Looking Back: How Pakistan Became an Asian Tiger in 2050” now available in hard copy in Pakistan here http://www.libertybooks.com/index.php?route=product/search&search=Nadeem%20ul%20haque&category_id=0Soft copy here. https://www.amazon.com/Looking-Back-Pakistan-Became-Asian-ebook/dp/B06X94135J/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1488133596&sr=1-1&keywords=nadeem+haque

Listen and learn and write some papers on this subject.  Don’t forget to cite Soch Bichar

Please subscribe to Soch Bichar if you like it. Tell you friends about it. That is the only way to grow a public discussion. And we need a wider conversation on these important subjects.

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Social Science research in Pakistan (ENGLISH)

May 11, 2018

Speaking to Ilhan Niaz a young historian (Associate Professor at QAU and Author of 4 books) on the research culture in Pakistan, how broken it is and how it can be fixed.

Listen to this and let us reinvigorate research and debate into change. 

Listen to this fascinating discussion. There is much to learn and research here. 

You can also look at my book “Looking Back: How Pakistan Became an Asian Tiger in 2050” now available in hard copy in Pakistan here http://www.libertybooks.com/index.php?route=product/search&search=Nadeem%20ul%20haque&category_id=0Soft copy here. https://www.amazon.com/Looking-Back-Pakistan-Became-Asian-ebook/dp/B06X94135J/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1488133596&sr=1-1&keywords=nadeem+haque

Listen and learn and write some papers on this subject.  Don’t forget to cite Soch Bichar

Please subscribe to Soch Bichar if you like it. Tell you friends about it. That is the only way to grow a public discussion. And we need a wider conversation on these important subjects.

 

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Aid and Public Policy (English)

April 29, 2018

A conversation with Raza Rumi on a course on 'Public Policy and Aid' that he is teaching at Cornell Institutie of Public Adminsitraiton.  

Raza is well known Pakistani scholar that we have met in an earlier podcast. 

Those interested in Public Policy will find very useful ideas for thought and research here. 

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Regional Connectivity (ENGLISH)

April 21, 2018

Pakistan since its inception has been dependent on aid and aid-financed policy advisers. Lacking indigenous thinking, policy has always felt insecure and looked to easy solutions based on greater dependency on external agents.

Following such advice policymakers have felt inadequate to tackle domestic policy issues. Donors in recent years have pushed the agenda of regional integration as vital to economic development.

The initiation of CPEC is vital to the opening out of Pakistan to Central Asia and eventually to Pakistan playing a vital role in Asian trade and connectivity. CPEC is also playing a vital role in providing much needed energy and road infrastructure.

We discuss regional connectivity with Haroon Sharif who has managed regional policy issues as a senior adviser in the World Bank and DFID. He has also had experience in several Pakistani policy positions and is now serving as an advisor to the National Defense University.

While all economists agree on opening out the economy and the need to develop trade in your neighborhood and beyond, it is not quite clear whether an uncompetitive economy beset with poor governance and high cost of doing business will be able to take advantage only of regional policies. 

Haroon sheds light on issues related to regional connectivity and how we can benefit from CPEC.

Listen to this and let us reinvigorate research and debate into change. 

Listen to this fascinating discussion. There is much to learn and research here. 

You can also look at my book “Looking Back: How Pakistan Became an Asian Tiger in 2050” now available in hard copy in Pakistan here http://www.libertybooks.com/index.php?route=product/search&search=Nadeem%20ul%20haque&category_id=0Soft copy here. https://www.amazon.com/Looking-Back-Pakistan-Became-Asian-ebook/dp/B06X94135J/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1488133596&sr=1-1&keywords=nadeem+haque

Listen and learn and write some papers on this subject.  Don’t forget to cite Soch Bichar

Please subscribe to Soch Bichar if you like it. Tell you friends about it. That is the only way to grow a public discussion. And we need a wider conversation on these important subjects.

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Thoughts on Development (English)

March 27, 2018

Khalil Hamdani has had extensive experience in development policy having served in PIDE, and several UN agencies for 30+ years. In particular he led the effort to develop FDI policies in several developing countries. 

Here we discuss his ideas on development, FDI, role of economists and policies for development and their limits. 

Several important ideas are discussed including approaches to research and thought.

Listen to this and let us reinvigorate research and debate into change. 

Listen to this fascinating discussion. There is much to learn and research here. 

You can also look at my book “Looking Back: How Pakistan Became an Asian Tiger in 2050” now available in hard copy in Pakistan here http://www.libertybooks.com/index.php?route=product/search&search=Nadeem%20ul%20haque&category_id=0Soft copy here. https://www.amazon.com/Looking-Back-Pakistan-Became-Asian-ebook/dp/B06X94135J/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1488133596&sr=1-1&keywords=nadeem+haque

Listen and learn and write some papers on this subject.  Don’t forget to cite Soch Bichar

Please subscribe to Soch Bichar if you like it. Tell you friends about it. That is the only way to grow a public discussion. And we need a wider conversation on these important subjects.

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The roots of political disorder in Pakistan (URDU)

March 15, 2018

Zaigham Khan is a well-known Pakistani anthropologist who has been analyzing recent events very provocatively in several columns in newspapers. 

In this episode, he takes a ‘deep dive’ into Pakistan’s continuing struggle to find stable system of governance. While the current political impasse in which the judiciary, politicians and the establishment are all seeking supremacy is under considerable discussion on a daily basis in the media, there is little understanding of the deeper causes of the country’s political impasse.

Here we examine this continuing crisis from several points of view—historically, sociologically, economically and of politically.

The discussion is very interesting and informative especially who want to move beyond the mundane debate of the media pundits and the vacuous politicians.

If you want to learn and especially if you want to conduct some research in this area, you must listen to this podcast.

Listen to this and let us reinvigorate research and debate into change. 

Listen to this fascinating discussion. There is much to learn and research here. 

You can also look at my book “Looking Back: How Pakistan Became an Asian Tiger in 2050” now available in hard copy in Pakistan here http://www.libertybooks.com/index.php?route=product/search&search=Nadeem%20ul%20haque&category_id=0Soft copy here. https://www.amazon.com/Looking-Back-Pakistan-Became-Asian-ebook/dp/B06X94135J/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1488133596&sr=1-1&keywords=nadeem+haque

Listen and learn and write some papers on this subject.  Don’t forget to cite Soch Bichar

Please subscribe to Soch Bichar if you like it. Tell you friends about it. That is the only way to grow a public discussion. And we need a wider conversation on these important subjects.

 

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The New Wealth of Nations (ENGLISH)

March 5, 2018

What is the wealth of nations? How can we measure it? What is the impact of education on wealth? Will the spread of education increase or decrease inequality of incomes?

These profound questions affect all peoples and countries and are frequently discussed at many levels by the media, political leaderships, writers, thinkers and of course economists. 

Adam Smith initiated the subject of economics with his book An Inquiry into the Wealth of Nations. Since then much serious economic research has focused on how people and nations can achieve wealth and welfare equitably.

Surjit Bhalla is one of the finest economists from India who has frequently contributed to economic research and debate has now put out a new book, The New Wealth of nations.

Surjit has contributed in a very significant manner to the literature in economics. He he has also written 2 books on cricket and also has been one of the leading forecasters and analysts of Indian elections. 

Surjit’s new book is provocative and creative, shedding light on issues of country and global prosperity and equity. As always, he does very fine quantitative work providing solid evidence for his arguments.

Listen to this very interesting podcast. It will certainly provoke you into thinking and investigating his ideas further.

Listen to this and let us reinvigorate research and debate into change. 

Listen to this fascinating discussion. There is much to learn and research here. 

You can also look at my book “Looking Back: How Pakistan Became an Asian Tiger in 2050” now available in hard copy in Pakistan here http://www.libertybooks.com/index.php?route=product/search&search=Nadeem%20ul%20haque&category_id=0Soft copy here. https://www.amazon.com/Looking-Back-Pakistan-Became-Asian-ebook/dp/B06X94135J/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1488133596&sr=1-1&keywords=nadeem+haque

Listen and learn and write some papers on this subject.  Don’t forget to cite Soch Bichar

Please subscribe to Soch Bichar if you like it. Tell you friends about it. That is the only way to grow a public discussion. And we need a wider conversation on these important subjects.

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“Let the system Run” or “do we need reform” (URDU)

February 26, 2018

It is frequently argued that no matter how bad our democracy is all we need is to let the system run and it will automatically produce the finest democracy ever. We can go through many dynasties and we will achieve democracy.

Here Saeed Afridi a former oil and gas professional now a PhD candidate in politics argues to the contrary.

  • We discuss why research and debate on possible reform is so lacking in Pakistan.
  • We also take up on how change is always sled by ideas and a debate among thinkers on change ideas.
  • We discuss how change happens and why it is important to constantly think change.
  • We discuss how merely running a faulty car with punctured tires will not fix itself without some tinkering and fixing.  

Listen to this and let us reinvigorate research and debate into change. 

Listen to this fascinating discussion. There is much to learn and research here. 

You can also look at my book “Looking Back: How Pakistan Became an Asian Tiger in 2050” now available in hard copy in Pakistan. Soft copy here. https://www.amazon.com/Looking-Back-Pakistan-Became-Asian-ebook/dp/B06X94135J/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1488133596&sr=1-1&keywords=nadeem+haque

Listen and learn and write some papers on this subject.  Don’t forget to cite Soch Bichar

Please subscribe to Soch Bichar if you like it. Tell you friends about it. That is the only way to grow a public discussion. And we need a wider conversation on these important subjects.

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To get democracy, fix the constitution (URDU)

February 26, 2018

In collaboration with "Hafte Ki Seedhi Baat," "Soch Bichar" addresses the constitutional issue again today. 

Today the Supreme Court has ruled to disqualify PM Nawaz Sharif. 

This is not a day to celebrate but a day to reflect.

  • We must reflect on why we not been able to achieve democracy.
  • We must reflect on why our democratic government overstep their bounds all the time.
  • We must reflect on our dynastic parliament.
  • We must reflect on the continuing erosion of our institutions.

Adnan Rasool a PHD candidate in Georgia has launched a podcast Hafte Ki seedhi Baat but more importantly is researching on constitutional issues.

We had a fascinating discussion on why it is the poor constitutional design that is leading to a poor-quality democracy. Several themes for reform were discussed.

We hope that there will be a wide-ranging discussion on these issues and a policy community on constitutional reform developed. That is the only way forward. People must push for reform by discussing such ideas and pushing for change. Don’t leave it to politicians who are benefitting from the system to change the system.

You can also look at my book “Looking Back: How Pakistan Became an Asian Tiger in 2050” now available in hard copy in Pakistan. Soft copy here. https://www.amazon.com/Looking-Back-Pakistan-Became-Asian-ebook/dp/B06X94135J/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1488133596&sr=1-1&keywords=nadeem+haque

Listen and learn and write some papers on this subject.  Don’t forget to cite Soch Bichar

Please subscribe to Soch Bichar if you like it. Tell you friends about it. That is the only way to grow a public discussion. And we need a wider conversation on these important subjects.

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RENTIER CAPITALISM (ENGLISH)

February 21, 2018

This is an important podcast for those interested in the political economy of development.

Shahid Ahmed is a Pakistani economist with long experience of the UN and international financial markets. He has written a book provocatively titled Rentier Capitalism: Disorganized development and Social Injustice in Pakistan.

We discuss his book where he examines why Pakistan developed differently from the rest of Asia. Several themes are examined and the conversation evolves very nicely to interesting themes on the political economy of Pakistan, trends in development thinking and the state of policymaking and governance. We come to interesting conclusion that might echo with some of you.

In any case there are several interesting themes for research and thought that are developed in the conversation. 

Shahid also has an interesting book recommendation at the end. So please watch for it.

Stay Curious!

Listen to this fascinating discussion. There is much to learn and research here. 

You can also look at my book “Looking Back: How Pakistan Became an Asian Tiger in 2050” now available in hard copy in Pakistan. Soft copy here. 

http://www.libertybooks.com/index.php?route=product/search&search=Nadeem%20ul%20haque&category_id=0

Listen and learn and write some papers on this subject.  Don’t forget to cite Soch Bichar

Please subscribe to Soch Bichar if you like it. Tell you friends about it. That is the only way to grow a public discussion. And we need a wider conversation on these important subjects

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Thinking like an Entrepreneur, Entrepreneurship Incubation and Ecosystem (ENGLISH and some URDU)

January 31, 2018

As we have discussed in many episodes, Entrepreneurship and innovation is an important source of growth in an economy. Entrepreneurship was also central to the Framework of Economic Growth of the Planning Commission that was approved by the government in 2011 and 2012. Sadly, like most good policies it was neither read nor implemented. Entrepreneurship also plays a central role in my book ‘Looking Back.”

A study on entrepreneurships in Pakistan is available here. 

http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/Working%20Paper/WorkingPaper-29.pdf

While in previous episodes we have discussed entrepreneurship with economists and thinker who have studied the subject, in this episode, we will discuss the subject with 2 entrepreneurs who are entrepreneurs. But now they have become entrepreneurship evangelists which involves incubating entrepreneurship and creating an entrepreneurship ecosystem.   

Faisal Sherjan has been a founding spirit of Geo and venture capital funds in UK and is now managing the LUMS incubator for entrepreneurship while he is also investing in a number of startups. 

Kurram Zafar has set up successful startups in Silicon Valley and  has been involved in many ventures in Pakistan. He set up the Plan 9 incubator and the LUMS incubator and has now developed the first venture capital fund for Pakistan.

Listen to these to entrepreneurs talk about the entrepreneurship,

  • How to think like an entrepreneur;
  • How you can find opportunities;
  • How to do a startup;
  • What and incubator is and how it can help you;
  • What is an entrepreneurial ecosystem is and why it is necessary;
  • What is needed in policy to support entrepreneurship.

 Listen and learn and as always comment, discusses and debate. 

Stay Curious!

Listen to this fascinating discussion. There is much to learn and research here. 

You can also look at my book “Looking Back: How Pakistan Became an Asian Tiger in 2050” now available in hard copy in Pakistan. Soft copy here. 

http://www.libertybooks.com/index.php?route=product/search&search=Nadeem%20ul%20haque&category_id=0

Listen and learn and write some papers on this subject.  Don’t forget to cite Soch Bichar

Please subscribe to Soch Bichar if you like it. Tell you friends about it. That is the only way to grow a public discussion. And we need a wider conversation on these important subjects.

 

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Governance and Civil Service Reform (English)

January 5, 2018

Governance remains Pakistan’s biggest challenge as we have seen in many of our podcasts.  Recent news also confirms the importance of understanding and improving our governance.  I know I have often argued civil service is an important component of any governments reform that Pakistan might undertake.

Saeed Shafqat is an important thinker in the area of civil service reform and governments. He has written many important research articles on the subject has been training civil servants for many decades. He also heads FC College University Center for Public Policy and Governance.

We discuss the underpinnings of governance reform

  • The need to change the culture of governance through deep seated reform of both politics and the civil service
  • The need to reimagine governance and within it the kinds of supporting technical professional, administrative, judicial legal regulatory systems that are now needed
  • We remain embedded in colonial systems that are too stretched to meet the needs of a much larger population, growing globalization and major technological challenges

Listen to this and let us reinvigorate research and debate into change. 

Listen to this fascinating discussion. There is much to learn and research here. 

You can also look at my book “Looking Back: How Pakistan Became an Asian Tiger in 2050” now available in hard copy in Pakistan. Soft copy here. 

http://www.libertybooks.com/index.php?route=product/search&search=Nadeem%20ul%20haque&category_id=0

Listen and learn and write some papers on this subject.  Don’t forget to cite Soch Bichar

Please subscribe to Soch Bichar if you like it. Tell you friends about it. That is the only way to grow a public discussion. And we need a wider conversation on these important subjects.

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law and Justice Reform (ENGLISH)

December 30, 2017

“Institutions are important for growth and development” is now well known and accepted. There are many measures of institutional development (eg Competiveness, Governance matters, Ease of Doing business) that have been developed around the world. Most of them tell us that justice, legal frameworks and contract enforcement are important items that must work well.

There is little research is how to reform and make these systems better. Over the years a number of donors have funded fairly large projects in this regard with little success.

Osama Siddique is one young Law researcher who has done some great work to understand Pakistan’s law and justice system and has some great ideas to discuss. Sadly, Pakistan has produced too few legal scholars like Osama who have researched our law and justice system to develop concrete ideas for reform. 

This is a very important podcast that scholars and thinkers must listen to and discuss and develop research on. Recent involvement of the courts in the prevailing political mess have revealed the huge weaknesses in our law and court system.

We must listen to Osama and develop much research and debate in this area and push for legal and judicial reform if Pakistan is to move forward. 

Listen to this and let us reinvigorate research and debate into change. 

Listen to this fascinating discussion. There is much to learn and research here. 

You can also look at my book “Looking Back: How Pakistan Became an Asian Tiger in 2050” now available in hard copy in Pakistan. Soft copy here. 

http://www.libertybooks.com/index.php?route=product/search&search=Nadeem%20ul%20haque&category_id=0

Listen and learn and write some papers on this subject.  Don’t forget to cite Soch Bichar

Please subscribe to Soch Bichar if you like it. Tell you friends about it. That is the only way to grow a public discussion. And we need a wider conversation on these important subjects.

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